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CHARTERS & TREATIES

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Adopted and offered for signature, ratification and accession under the General Assembly resolution
To the United Nations 2,200,000 (D-21) of December 16, 1966
Entry into force: 23 March 1976, in accordance with Article 49

Preamble

The States Parties to this Covenant,
Considering that recognition of the inherent dignity of all members of the human family and of equal and stable rights constitutes, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, the basis of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Recognizing that these rights stem from the inherent dignity of the human being,
Realizing that the only way to achieve the ideal that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, for human beings to be free, enjoy civil and political freedom and free from fear and want is to create conditions to enable every person to enjoy his civil and political rights, as well as his economic, social and cultural rights,
Bearing in mind the obligation of States, under the Charter of the United Nations, to promote universal respect for and observance of human rights and freedoms,
Realizing that the individual, who has duties to other individuals and to the group to which he belongs, has a responsibility to endeavor to promote and observe the rights recognized in this Covenant,
Have agreed on the following articles:

part One
Article 1

1. All peoples have the right to self-determination. By virtue of this right, it is free to determine its political status and free to strive for its economic, social and cultural development.
2. All peoples, in pursuit of their own goals, may freely dispose of their wealth and natural resources without prejudice to any obligations stemming from the requirements of international economic cooperation based on the principle of mutual benefit and international law. In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence.
3. The states parties to the present covenant, including states which have the responsibility to administer the Non-Self-Governing Territories and the Trust Territories, must work towards the realization of the right to self-determination and respect this right, in accordance with the provisions of the United Nations Charter.

part two
Article 2

1. Each state party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect the rights recognized therein, and to guarantee these rights to all individuals within its territory and within its jurisdiction, without any discrimination on the grounds of race, color, sex, language, religion, or political or other opinion. Political, national or social origin, wealth, lineage, or other reasons.
2. Each state party to the present Covenant undertakes, if its existing legislative or non-legislative measures do not really guarantee the realization of the rights recognized in this Covenant, to take, in accordance with its constitutional procedures and the provisions of this Covenant, the legislative or other measures necessary for this realization. .
3. Each state party to this covenant undertakes:
(A) To ensure that an effective remedy is provided to any person whose rights or freedoms recognized in this Covenant have been violated, even if the violation was caused by persons acting in their official capacity,
(B) To ensure that every complainant in this way has a decision on the rights allegedly violated by a competent judicial, administrative or legislative authority, or any other competent authority provided for in the legal system of the State, and that the possibilities for judicial grievance are developed,
(C) To ensure that the competent authorities enforce the judgments issued in the interests of the complainants.

Article 3

The states parties to this covenant undertake to guarantee the equal right of men and women to enjoy all the civil and political rights stipulated in this covenant.

Article 4

1. In cases of exceptional emergency threatening the life of the nation, whose existence is officially declared, the States Parties to the present Covenant may take, within the narrowest limits required by the situation, measures that do not comply with their obligations under this covenant, provided that these measures do not contravene other obligations arising from them. Under international law, and not involving discrimination, the only justification is race, color, sex, language, religion, or social origin.
2. This text does not permit any violation of the provisions of Articles 6, 7 and 8 (paragraphs 1 and 2), 11, 15, 16 and 18.
3. Any state party to this covenant that has used the right of derogation must immediately inform the other states parties, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, of the provisions that they did not comply with and the reasons that led them to do so. She shall, on the date on which she terminates the derogation, inform her again in the same manner.

Article 5

1. There is no provision in this covenant that may be interpreted in a manner that implies the right of any state, group or person to engage in any activity or perform any action aimed at undermining any of the rights or freedoms recognized in this covenant or to impose restrictions on them more broadly than those Stipulated therein.
2. It is not acceptable to impose any restriction or restriction on any of the basic human rights recognized or enforceable in any country in application of laws, agreements, regulations or customs, under the pretext that this covenant does not recognize them or that it recognized them in the narrowest extent.

the third part
Article 6

1. The right to life is an inherent right of every human being. And the law must protect this right. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.
2. In countries that have not abolished the death penalty, this penalty may only be imposed as a penalty for the most serious crimes in accordance with the legislation in force at the time the crime was committed and not in violation of the provisions of this Covenant and the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. This penalty may only be applied pursuant to a final judgment issued by a competent court.
3. When the deprivation of life is a crime of genocide, it is understood a priori that there is no provision in this article authorizing any state party to this covenant to exempt itself in any form from any obligation incurred by it under the provisions of the Convention on the Prevention of the Crime of Genocide And punished.
4. Any person sentenced to death has the right to seek special pardon or commutation of the sentence. A general or special pardon or commutation of the death penalty may be granted in all cases.
5. The death penalty may not be imposed for crimes committed by persons under eighteen years of age, nor may this punishment be executed by pregnant women.
6. There is no provision in this article that may be invoked to delay or prevent the abolition of the death penalty by any state party to this covenant.

Article 7

No one shall be subjected to torture, nor to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, it is not permissible to conduct any medical or scientific experiment on anyone without his free consent.

Article 8

1. No one may be enslaved, and slavery and the slave trade in all their forms are prohibited.
2. No one shall be subjected to servitude.
3. (a) No one may be forced into forced or compulsory labor,
(B) Paragraph 3 (a) may not be interpreted in such a way that, in countries which permit the punishment of some crimes with imprisonment with hard labor, the execution of the hard labor penalty imposed by a competent court is forbidden.
(C) For the purposes of this paragraph, the term "forced or compulsory labor" does not include
(1) The works and services not intended in subparagraph (b) and which are usually imposed on the arrested person as a result of a judicial or legal decision or against whom such a decision was issued and then he was released conditionally,
(2) Any service of a military nature, and also, in countries that recognize the right of conscientious objection to military service, any national service that the law imposes on conscientious objectors,
(3) Any service imposed in cases of emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community,
(Iv) Any business or service that forms part of normal civil obligations.

Article 9

1. Everyone has the right to freedom and security of his person. No one shall be arbitrarily arrested or detained. No one may be deprived of his liberty except for reasons stipulated by law and in accordance with the procedure established therein.
2. Any person who is arrested must be informed of the reasons for this arrest when it takes place, and he must be informed promptly of any charge against him.
3. The person arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall promptly present to a judge or one of the officials authorized by law to exercise judicial functions, and he shall be entitled to be tried within a reasonable period or to be released. The detention of persons awaiting trial should not be the general rule, but their release may be suspended on guarantees to ensure that they attend the trial at any other stage of the judicial process, and to ensure the execution of the judgment when necessary.
4. Everyone who has been deprived of his freedom by arrest or detention has the right to return to a court so that this court may decide without delay on the legality of his detention and order his release if the detention is unlawful.
5. Everyone who has been the victim of an illegal arrest or detention has the right to compensation.

Article 10

1. All persons deprived of their freedom shall be treated humanely, respecting the inherent dignity of the human person.
2. (a) Accused persons shall be separated from convicted persons, except in exceptional circumstances, and they shall be subject to separate treatment consistent with their being non-convicted persons,
(B) The accused shall separate the juveniles from the adults. And brought as speedily as possible to the judiciary to adjudicate their cases.
3. The prison system must take into account the treatment of prisoners a treatment whose primary goal is their reform and social rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders are separated from adults and treated according to their age and legal status.

Article 11

No person may be imprisoned solely on the ground of inability to fulfill a contractual obligation.

Article 12

1. Everyone who is legally found within the territory of a state has the right to freedom of movement and freedom to choose his place of residence.
2. Everyone is free to leave any country, including his own.
3. The aforementioned rights shall not be restricted by any restrictions other than those stipulated by law, and are necessary to protect national security, public order, public health, public morals, or the rights and freedoms of others, and are consistent with the other rights recognized in this covenant.
4. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of the right to enter his country.

Article 13

It is not permissible to deport an alien legally residing in the territory of a state party to this covenant except in implementation of a decision taken in accordance with the law, and after enabling him, unless otherwise required by national security reasons, to present the reasons supporting his non-deportation and to present his case to the competent authority or to whomever designates him She appoints them specially for that, and whoever delegates someone to represent him before her or in front of them.

Article 14

1. All people are equal before the courts. It is the right of every individual, when adjudicating any criminal charges against him or his rights and obligations in any civil lawsuit, that his case be subject to a fair and public examination by a competent, independent and impartial court established by virtue of law. The press and the public may be prevented from attending the trial, in whole or in part, for reasons of public morals, public order, or national security in a democratic society, or for the requirements of the privacy of the parties to the case, or at the lowest levels that the court deems necessary when publicity in some exceptional circumstances would disturb In the interest of justice, however, any judgment in a criminal case or a civil lawsuit must be issued publicly, unless the matter relates to events that require their interest otherwise or if the case deals with disputes between spouses or is related to the guardianship of children.
2. It is the right of everyone accused of committing a crime to be considered innocent until proven guilty by law.
3. Every person accused of a crime is entitled to, while hearing his case, on full equality, the following minimum guarantees:
(A) To be informed promptly and in detail, in a language he understands, of the nature and causes of the accusation against him.
(B) To be given sufficient time and facilities to prepare his defense and to contact a lawyer of his own choosing,
(C) To be tried without undue delay,
(D) To be tried in his presence and to defend himself in person or through a lawyer of his choice, to be notified of his right in the presence of someone to defend him if he has no one to defend him, and for the court to provide him with a judgment, whenever the interest of justice requires that, with a lawyer to defend him, without Charging him for that if he does not have the means to pay this fee,
(E) To discuss the prosecution witnesses, personally or through others, and to obtain approval to summon defense witnesses under the same conditions applicable in the case of accusation witnesses,
(D) To be provided with a translator free of charge if he does not understand or speak the language used in the court,
(G) Not to be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt.
4. In the case of juveniles, consideration shall be given to making the procedures suitable for their age and conducive to the need to work on their rehabilitation.
5. Every person convicted of a crime shall have the right to asylum, according to the law, to a higher court to review his conviction and the punishment imposed on him.
6. When a person has been sentenced to a final judgment convicting him of a crime, and then this judgment is annulled or a special pardon has been issued for him on the basis of a new incident or a newly discovered incident that carries conclusive evidence of a judicial error, the person who was punished as a result of that conviction must be compensated. According to the law, unless it is proved that he bears, in whole or in part, the responsibility for not disclosing the unknown event in a timely manner.
7. No one may be subjected to prosecution or punishment for a crime previously convicted or acquitted by a final judgment in accordance with the law and criminal procedures in each country.

Article 15

1. No individual shall be convicted of any crime due to an act or omission that did not, at the time of its commission, constitute a crime under national or international law. Nor may any heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was in effect at the time the crime was committed. And if, after the commission of the crime, a law was passed providing for a lighter penalty, the perpetrator must benefit from this reduction.
2. Nothing in this article shall prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission that, when committed, constituted a crime in accordance with the general principles of law recognized by the community of nations.

Article 16

Every person, everywhere, has the right to have legal personality recognized.

Article 17

1. It is not permitted to expose any person, arbitrarily or unlawfully, to interference with his privacy, family affairs, home, or correspondence, nor to any unlawful campaigns affecting his honor or reputation.
2. It is the right of every person to be protected by law against such interference or attacks.

Article 18

1. Every human being has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This includes his freedom to profess a religion, his freedom to profess any religion or belief he chooses, and his freedom to express his religion or belief in worship, rituals, practice and education, alone or with a group, and in public or separately.
2. No one shall be subjected to coercion that would impair his freedom to adopt a religion, or his freedom to profess any religion or belief of his choice.
3. The freedom of a person to express his religion or belief may not be subordinated except to restrictions imposed by law that are necessary to protect public safety, public order, public health, public morals, or the rights and fundamental freedoms of others.
4. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to respect the freedom of parents, or guardians when they are present, to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in accordance with their own convictions.

Article 19

1. Everyone has the right to hold opinions without harassment.
2. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right includes his freedom to seek various forms of information and ideas, receive and transfer them to others without regard to borders, whether in written or printed form, or in artistic form, or any other medium he chooses.
3. The exercise of the rights stipulated in Paragraph 2 of this Article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. Accordingly, it may be subject to some restrictions, but provided that it is specified in the text of the law and is necessary:
(A) To respect the rights or reputation of others,
(B) To protect national security, public order, public health, or public morals.

Article 20

1. Any propaganda for war is prohibited by law.
2. The law prohibits any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence.

Article 21

The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right except those imposed in accordance with the law and which constitute necessary measures, in a democratic society, to maintain national security, public safety, public order, protect public health or morals, or protect the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 22

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and join trade unions in order to protect his interests.
2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those stipulated by law and which constitute necessary measures, in a democratic society, for the maintenance of national security, public safety or public order, protection of public health or public morals, or protection of the rights and freedoms of others. This article does not prevent members of the armed forces and police from subjecting to legal restrictions on exercising this right.
3. Nothing in this article authorizes states parties to the International Labor Organization Convention of 1948 Concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize to take legislative measures that would lead to, or to apply the law in a way that violates the guarantees stipulated in that convention.

Article 23

1. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the state.
2. From reaching the age of marriage, a man and a woman have a recognized right to marry and found a family.
3. No marriage takes place without the full consent of the two parties to whom they are to be married, without coercion.
4. The States Parties to the present Covenant shall take appropriate measures to ensure the equal rights and duties of both spouses upon marriage, during marriage and upon its dissolution. In the event of dissolution, measures must be taken to ensure the necessary protection for children, if any.

Article 24

1. Every child, without any discrimination based on race, color, sex, language, religion, national or social origin, wealth or lineage, has the right to his family, society and the state to take the protection measures required by his being a minor.
2. Every child must be registered immediately after birth and given a name by which he is known.
3. Every child has the right to acquire a nationality.

Article 25

Every citizen, without any aspect of the discrimination mentioned in Article 2, shall have the following rights, which he must have the opportunity to enjoy without unreasonable restrictions:
(A) To participate in the conduct of public affairs, either directly or through freely chosen representatives,
(B) To be elected and to be elected, in fair elections that are held periodically by universal and equal suffrage and by secret ballot, which guarantees the free expression of the will of the electors,
(C) To have access, on a general basis of equality with others, to obtain public service in his country.

Article 26

All human beings are equal before the law and enjoy, without any discrimination, the equal right to its protection. In this regard, the law must prohibit any discrimination and ensure all persons equally effective protection from discrimination for any reason, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or non-political opinion, national or social origin, wealth or lineage, or Other reasons.

Article 27

In countries where there are ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities, persons belonging to the said minorities may not be denied the right to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practice their religion, or to use their own language, in association with other members of their group.

part Four
Article 28

1. A committee shall be established to be called the Committee on Human Rights (hereinafter referred to in the present Covenant as “the Committee”). This committee consists of eighteen members and undertakes the functions stipulated in the following.
2. The Committee shall be composed of citizens of the States Parties to the present Covenant, who possess high moral qualities and are known for their competence in the field of human rights, bearing in mind that it is beneficial for some persons with legal experience to participate in it.
3. Members of the committee are appointed by election, and they work for it in their personal capacity.

Article 29

1. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons with the qualifications stipulated in Article 28, who have been nominated for this purpose by the States Parties to this Covenant.
2. Each state party to this covenant may nominate, from among its citizens exclusively, two persons at most.
3. The same person may be nominated more than once.

Article 30

1. The first election shall take place not later than six months after the entry into force of this covenant.
2. At least four months before the date of any election to the membership of the Committee, other than the election to fill a seat declared vacant in accordance with Article 34, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall send a written letter to the States Parties to this Covenant inviting them to submit the names of their candidates for membership of the Committee within three Months.
3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall draw up a list of the names of all the candidates in this way, in alphabetical order and with the mention of the State Party that nominated each of them, and he shall communicate this list to the States Parties to this Covenant at least one month before the date of each election.
4. The members of the Committee are elected at a meeting of the States Parties to the present Covenant, at the invitation of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, at the headquarters of the United Nations. In this meeting, in which a quorum is completed in the presence of the representatives of two-thirds of the states parties to the present covenant, those candidates who obtained the largest number of votes and the absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of the states parties present and the voting wins.

Article 31

1. The committee may not include more than one citizen of any country.
2. The fairness of geographical distribution and the representation of the various civilizations and major legal systems shall be taken into consideration in the election to the committee.

Article 32

1. Members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. And are eligible for re-election if renominated. However, the mandate of nine of the members elected in the first election expires at the end of two years, and these nine members are determined immediately after the end of the first election, with the chairman of the meeting stipulated in Paragraph 4 of Article 30 choosing their names by lot.
2. The necessary elections shall take place upon the expiration of the mandate in accordance with the aforementioned articles of this part of this covenant.

Article 33

1. If a member of the committee ceases, by unanimous opinion of its other members, from carrying out his duties for any reason other than absence of a temporary nature, the head of the committee shall inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations, and the Secretary-General shall then declare the seat of that member vacant.
2. In the event of the death or resignation of a member of the committee, the chairperson of the committee shall immediately inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations, and the Secretary-General shall then announce the vacancy of that member’s seat, starting from the date of his death or from the date on which his resignation takes effect.

Article 34

1. If a seat is declared vacant in accordance with Article 33, and the mandate of the member who must be replaced does not expire during the six months following the announcement of his seat vacancy, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform the States Parties to this covenant, who may, within two months, Candidates shall be presented in accordance with Article 29 in order to fill the vacant seat.
2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall draw up a list of all the candidates in this manner, in alphabetical order, and shall communicate this list to the States Parties to this Covenant. Then the election necessary to fill the vacant seat shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions related to that of this part of this covenant.
3. Every member of the committee elected to fill a seat declared vacant according to Article 33 shall assume the duties of membership therein until the expiration of the remainder of the term of the member whose seat in the committee became vacant in accordance with the provisions of that article.

Article 35

Members of the Committee shall receive, with the approval of the General Assembly of the United Nations, bonuses deducted from the resources of the United Nations on the conditions decided by the General Assembly, taking into account the importance of the responsibilities of the Committee.

Article 36

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary personnel and facilities to enable the Commission to effectively carry out the functions entrusted to it under this Covenant.

Article 37

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall invite the Committee to hold its first meeting at United Nations Headquarters.
2. After its first meeting, the committee shall meet at the times stipulated in its bylaws.
3. The committee usually holds its meetings at the United Nations headquarters or at the United Nations office in Geneva.

Article 38

Each member of the committee, before assuming office, formally undertakes, in a public session, to carry out his duties impartially and impartially.

Article 39

1. The committee elects its bureau for a period of two years. They may be re-elected.
2. The committee shall personally set its rules of procedure, but with the inclusion of the following two provisions:
(A) The quorum shall be completed in the presence of twelve members,
(B) The decisions of the committee are taken by the majority of the votes of its attending members.

Article 40

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to submit reports on the measures they have taken that represent implementation of the rights recognized therein, and on the progress made in the enjoyment of these rights, as follows:
(A) Within one year of the entry into force of this covenant with respect to the State Parties concerned,
(B) Then whenever the committee requests it to do so.
2. All reports are submitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who refers them to the Committee for consideration. The reports submitted must refer to the factors and difficulties that may arise in the implementation of the provisions of the present Covenant.
3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations, after consulting with the Committee, may transmit to the relevant specialized agencies copies of any parts of those reports that may fall within their field of competence.
4. The Committee examines the reports submitted by the states parties to this covenant. And it must provide these countries with the reports they draft, and any general observations they may consider. The Committee may also transmit these observations to the Economic and Social Council, together with copies of the reports it has received from the States Parties to the present Covenant.
5. The States Parties to the present Covenant may submit to the Committee comments on any observations that have been made in accordance with paragraph 4 of this article.

Article 41

1. Every state party to the present covenant may declare at any time, under the provisions of this article, that it recognizes the competence of the commission to receive and study communications involving a state party’s claim that another state party does not fulfill the obligations entailed by this covenant. Communications submitted under this article may not be received and examined unless they are made by a state party that has issued a declaration recognizing, in relation to it, the competence of the committee. The committee may not receive any communication concerning a state party that has not made the aforementioned declaration. The following procedure shall be applied to the reports received in accordance with the provisions of this article:
(A) If a State Party to the present Covenant considers that another State Party is failing to implement the provisions of the present Covenant, it may draw the consideration of this State Party, in a written communication, to this failure. Within three months of its receipt of the communication, the receiving state must deposit the sending state, in writing, an explanation or statement of any other kind clarifying the matter and should include, as far as possible and useful, an indication of the local procedural rules and methods of grievance that were used or Being used or still available,
(B) If the matter does not end with a settlement satisfying both of the two states parties concerned within six months from the date on which the receiving country received the first communication, then each of them may refer the matter to the committee by a notice directed to it and to the other state,
(C) The committee may not consider the matter referred to it except after making sure that all available domestic remedies have been resorted to and exhausted, in accordance with generally recognized principles of international law. This rule does not apply in cases where grievance procedures last for periods exceeding reasonable limits.
(D) The committee shall hold secret sessions when examining letters under this article.
(E) The committee, subject to the provisions of subparagraph (c), shall offer its good offices to the two states parties concerned, with a view to reaching an amicable solution to the issue on the basis of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms recognized in this Covenant.
(F) The committee, in any matter referred to it, may invite the two states parties concerned referred to in subparagraph (b) to provide it with any relevant information.
(G) The two concerned parties referred to in subparagraph (b) have the right to send a representative to the committee during its consideration of the matter, and the right to submit observations orally and / or in writing,
(H) The committee must submit a report within twelve months of the date it received the notification stipulated in subparagraph (b):
(1) If a solution is reached in accordance with the conditions of subparagraph (e), the committee confines its report to a brief presentation of the facts and the solution reached,
(2) If no solution is reached in accordance with the conditions of subparagraph (e), the committee confines its report to a brief presentation of the facts, and annexed to the report the written notes and the minutes of oral statements submitted by the two states parties concerned.
In every matter, the report must be communicated to the two states parties concerned.
2. The provisions of this Article shall enter into force when ten of the States Parties to this Covenant have issued declarations under paragraph (1) of this Article. The states parties deposit these declarations with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who sends copies of them to the other states parties. A State Party may withdraw its declaration at any time by notification to the Secretary-General. This withdrawal does not prejudice the consideration of any issue that is the subject of a communication previously sent under this article, and it is not permissible to receive any new communication from any state party after receiving the notification of the withdrawal of the declaration by the Secretary-General, unless the state party concerned has issued a new declaration.

Article 42

1. (a) If the committee is unable to resolve a matter referred to it in accordance with Article 41 a satisfactory solution to the two states parties concerned, it may, after obtaining the prior consent of the two states parties concerned, appoint a special conciliation commission (hereinafter referred to as “the commission”) to lay down its efforts We are at the disposal of the two states parties concerned with a view to reaching an amicable solution to the matter on the basis of respecting the provisions of this covenant,
(B) The Commission shall consist of five persons accepted by the two states parties concerned. If, within three months, it is not possible for the two states parties concerned to reach an agreement to form the whole body or some of it, the committee shall elect from among its members by secret ballot and by a two-thirds majority the members of the commission who have not been agreed upon.
2. Members of the Commission shall act in their personal capacity. They must not be citizens of the two states parties concerned or citizens of any country that is not a party to this covenant or which is a party to it but which has not made the declaration stipulated in Article 41.
3. The commission elects its president and sets its own bylaw.
4. The meetings of the Commission are usually held at the headquarters of the United Nations or at the United Nations office in Geneva. However, it may be held in any other suitable place that the Commission may designate in consultation with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and with the two states parties concerned.
5. The Secretariat stipulated in Article 36 shall also provide its services to the bodies designated under this Article.
6. The information received and collected by the commission shall be placed at the disposal of the commission, which may request the two states parties concerned to provide it with any other relevant information.
7. The Commission, after exhausting its consideration of the matter from its various aspects, but in any case within a period not exceeding twelve months after the matter was presented to it, submits a report to the Chairman of the Commission for its termination to the two states parties concerned:
(A) If the commission is unable to complete the consideration of the matter within twelve months, it confines its report to a brief indication of the stage it has reached from this consideration.
(B) If an amicable solution to the issue is reached on the basis of respect for the human rights recognized in the present Covenant, the commission shall limit its report to a brief presentation of the facts and the solution that has been reached,
(C) If no solution has been reached that meets the conditions of subparagraph (b), the Commission shall include its report on all factual issues related to the issue in dispute between the two states parties concerned, and its views on the possibilities of resolving the issue amicably, as well as written notes and minutes. Oral observations submitted by the two states parties concerned,
(D) If the commission submits its report under Paragraph (c), the two states parties concerned, within three months of receiving this report, inform the head of the commission whether or not they accept the contents of the commission’s report.
8. The provisions of this article are without prejudice to the responsibilities entrusted to the committee in Article 41.
9. The two states parties concerned shall share equally the payment of all expenses of the members of the Commission on the basis of estimates drawn up by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
10. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall have the authority to pay, when necessary, the expenses of the members of the Commission before reimbursement by the States Parties concerned, in accordance with paragraph 9 of this article.

Article 43

Members of the Commission and members of special conciliation bodies who may be appointed in accordance with Article 42 shall have the right to enjoy the facilities, privileges and immunities established for experts charged with a mission for the United Nations provided for in the sections dealing with this of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations.

Article 44

The provisions relating to the implementation of this covenant shall apply without prejudice to the procedures established in the field of human rights in or pursuant to the constituent instruments and conventions of the United Nations and the specialized agencies, and the States Parties to this Covenant do not prevent resorting to other measures to settle a dispute in accordance with general or special international agreements in force between them. .

Article 45

The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly of the United Nations, through the Economic and Social Council, an annual report on its work.

Part V
Article 46

Nothing in the provisions of this covenant may be interpreted in a manner indicating a breach of the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and the constitutions of the specialized agencies specifying the responsibilities of each of the United Nations bodies and the specialized agencies in relation to the issues covered by this covenant.

Article 47

Nothing in any of the provisions of this covenant may be interpreted in a manner indicating its breach of the inherent right of all peoples to the full enjoyment and use of freedom in the fullness of their wealth and natural resources.

Part VI
Article 48

1. This covenant is open for signature by any member state of the United Nations or a member of any of its specialized agencies, any state party to the statute of the International Court of Justice, and any other state called by the United Nations General Assembly to become a party to this covenant.
2. This covenant is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
3. Accession to this covenant is open to any of the states referred to in paragraph 1 of this article.
4. Accession takes place by depositing an instrument of accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
5. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all states that have signed or acceded to this covenant of the deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession.

Article 49

1. This covenant shall enter into force three months after the date on which the thirty-fifth instrument of accession or ratification is deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
2. As for the states that ratify this covenant or accede to it after the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or accession has been deposited, this covenant enters into force for each of them three months after the date on which they deposited their instrument of ratification or accession.

Article 50

The provisions of this covenant shall apply, without any limitation or exception, to all units that make up the federal states.

Article 51

1. Any state party to this covenant may propose an amendment to it, the text of which shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. As a result, the Secretary-General informs the States Parties to this Covenant of any proposed amendments, asking them to inform him of whether they favor holding a conference of States Parties to consider these proposals and vote on them. If at least one third of the states parties favor holding the conference, the Secretary-General convenes it under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of the States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to the United Nations General Assembly for approval.
2. Amendments shall enter into force when approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of the states parties to this covenant, in accordance with the constitutional procedures of each of them.
3. When the amendments enter into force, they become binding on the states parties that have accepted them, while other states parties remain bound by the provisions of this covenant and any previous amendment that they have accepted.

Article 52

Notwithstanding the notifications made pursuant to paragraph 5 of Article 48, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all the states referred to in paragraph 1 of the said Article of the following:
(A) Signatures, ratifications and accessions deposited in accordance with Article 48,
(B) The date of entry into force of this covenant under Article 49, and the date of entry into force of any amendments made under Article 51.

Article 53

1. This covenant, the texts of which are equally authentic, in the Spanish, English, Russian, Chinese and French texts, shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations.
2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall send certified copies of this covenant to all the states referred to in Article 48.

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